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Dunhuang History


It is difficult to search that how long the history is. However, we can see that 4000 or 5000 years ago, there was the spark of the horde originality civilization in the areas of Dang River and Sule River by the stone, pottery, bronze utensils which came from the area of Dunhuang, Yumen and Huoshaogou. In the period of Shang and Zhou, the Yunjie and Shiqiang which were the ancient hordes in Northwest left the precious rock paintings here, which become a key that we understand the ancient history in Dunhuang. In the period of Xianqin, Yueshi and Wushun races resided in Dunhuang successively. From 221 B.C. to 206 B.C., the Yueshi race took its strong tribe of" control the Xian 100,000", claim leadership in the river west, drive out black of neighboring country to foreign land. The weak at the mercy of the strong, proper existence. It was regrettable that the prosperity is not long. In the early years of West Han which was from 203 B.C. to 176 B.C., another more violent Huns race invaded in the river west from the Desert North Plateau, the Dayueshi continued to suffer a defeat, fought and went back, after 10 years, they escaped in the old haunt of Daxia which is in the south of The Amu River now to postpone the lingering breath of life. The strong Huns with the power of" control 30 remainings of the private of the Xian thirty thousand", became the host of the river west hallway.
After the Hanwu Emperor exterminated the Huns and unified the Hexi, he just really uncovered the first page of glorious cultural history of Dunhuang. For sweeping away the threat and harass which Huns thoroughly to the dynasties in Central Plains, Hanwu Emperor was great and talent, adopted the strategy of Qianxing, sent Zhang Qian who was a great commander in 139 B.C. to start the difficult" dig empty" raise, he firstly communicated to all western countries that shut to cut off usually and launched the large-scale war to the Huns. The the Hexi that Huo Qubing did in 121 B.C. and the war of the Mobei that Wei Qing did in B.C.127 gave the Huns with deathblow. After Huo Qubing unified the Hexi, Hanwu Emperor established four counties of the Hexi, and constructed the Fengshuitingzhang which started in Yongdengluochengtan in east, arrived in the ancient city of Luolan in Luobupo in west, broke through the Silk Road. The Yang Pass and the Yumen Pass of Dunhuang become the two importment places where Central plains leaded to Turkestans. The Jiuquan County was established in 121 B.C., Dunhuang belonged to the Jiuquan County to rule over at that time. In 114 B.C., Zhao Ponu adjusted to gather the county artificial, such as Jiuquan, Zhangye etc., cooperating to construct the side of Dunhuang to fill the city defense in the west coast of Dang River. The emigrant solid side policy of the West Han government made Dunhuang appeare the prosperous prospects, made it develop to become the military and administration center and the cultural and business important precinctses in Northwest. In the period of 16 countries in East Jin, the battle fire rised in Hexi. From 317 A.D. to 437 A.D., Dunhuang belongED to Qianliang, Qianqin, Houliang, Houqin etc. which were the political powers to rule over successively. In 400 A.D., Li Gao independented West Liang Country and cheese Dunhuang for the capital. He moved the capital to Jiuquan in 405 A.D. In 421 A.D., the North Liang put out the West Liang, replied to occupy Dunhuang. In 439 A.D., the North Wei unified the Hexi, it was opposited stability in Dunhuang, the economic and culture once more were prosperous, the Buddhism was prosperous. In 557 A.D., the Dunhuang County returned to the political power of North Zhou which was established by Yuwen Jue to rule over, descending to establish the Wusha County, having the Mingsha Mountain in the south of city but getting name.
After Sui Dynasty unified the whole country, ended the abruption situation of more than 300 years since the West Jin, one after another quelled the vomit anti- Sui influences such as Turkic, Tuguhun etc., and recovered the Hexi. Sui Dynasty changed Mingsha County to be as Dunhuang County, and sent Bei Jv to inspect to Dunhuang from 605 to 609, understood the circumstance of the Silk Road and the trade of between China and western countries, the trade exchange meeting was held in Dunhuang and many businessmen of all countries in Turkestan attended, and sent soliders to live, immigrated the solid side, opened up the farmland, Dunhuang appeared the unprecedented prosperity and stabilities, the art style of Dunhuang Caves changed because of it and started head for the very prosperous period.
After put out Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty recovered the Hexi in 619, placed the Shazhou in Dunhuang, Dunhuang County belonged to the Shazhou to rule over. In 622, they established five states which were Liang, Gan, Gua, Shu and Sha in the Hexi, but anti- Tang's influences in place were still the male strong at that time. In 640, Li Shimin uprooted the main obstacles up on the big way of thing take the west Turkic, insuring the Silk Road unimpeded, Dunhuang came to the most glorious period in history. In 727, the war act between Tang and Fan was drew back, the Guazhou city once offend to be sinked by the Tubo. After the insurrection of An and Shi, Tang adjusted the troops in Hexi to go to Dongping to put out the insurrection, Tubo gain an advantage in to impinge the Hexi. Although the crack troops halted in Shazhou, through not live to vomit the large force of Tubo to besiege for long decade, finally the exhausted food and arrows were out, the few can not fight the many, opened the city to decline in 781. Tubo governed Dunhuang for 67 years, the economic and culture were once prosperous, Mogao Hole appeared to the brilliant art of Buddhism in Tobo.
In 848, Zhang Yichao who was a rich man in Dunhuang gather the bullies of Han, Huihu, Wenmo, Long, Qiang, Tuguhun etc. who endured the Tubo, took the chance of the internal rebellion of Tubo, recovered the two states. In 851, Zhang Yichao recovered to the land and rivers which were controled by Tubo, and sent to make person toward dedicate ten state diagram books respectfully, Tang Dynasty gave Zhang Yichao to make, observe make for the stanza degree, make the department of the gold purple light doctor check school still the book gold my great commander soldier especially entered the Shazhou to garrison. In 905, Zhang Yichao independented, set up the West Han Jinshan Country in Dunhuang, isolated him to be the White Dress Emperor. In 914, the Jinshan Country died out, Zhang Yichao died without issue, Cao Yijin who was a rich man in the Shazhou to raise to replace the stanza degree make position, get two states of melon, sand. The Cao surname household hereditary stanza degree made be for 122 years, they valued the construction of economy, military and culture, they got along with the neighboring countries and different clans, the business in Dunhuang was thriving.
In 1036, Dangxiangqiang who was the descendant of Xiqiang attacked and occupied the river west hallway. From that time on, the Baishangdaxia Country ruled Dunhuang to amount to 191 years. The rulers of Xixia adopted the advanced technique and the production experience of Chinese's region, made the Hexi keep the level of the Tubo people's thing is rich and populous, is not extremely with Center Plain, reserved a great deal of abundant and special art of Buddhism of Xixia in Dunhuang Caves. In 1226, the battalion of Yuan Dynasty attacked and occupied Dunhuang. After found a nation in 1271, Dunhuang was rose as the manager mansion of Shazhoulu in 1281, belonged to the Ganshu Province, established the waterway to cured to manage the farmland and irrigation together, the two states which were Guazhou and Shazhou had many soldiers, the battalion of farming spread all over the area of Dang River and Shule River. Art of Dunhuang after declined later emergence once more prosperous.
In 1403, Ming Dynasty established Shazhouwei in Dunhuang, which was one of the seven Weis that were in west of the Jiayu Pass. In 1524, Ming Dynasty closed to lock the Jiayu Pass, moved the residenters of Guanxi into pass, the two states which were Guozhou and Shazhou were occupied by Turpan, the national minority resided the nomad's way of life here.
In 1715, the soldiers of Qing Dynasty recovered the whole Hexi, and advanced in Turkestan. In 1723, Qing Dynasty established the Shazhousuo in Dunhuang, two years was advanced to the Shazhouwei, belonged to Anxi with the Anxiwei and Liuzhouwei together. In the period of Kangxi and Qianlong, Qing Dynasty valued the development of pass'sides, adjusted, gathered and moved a large of armed forces and people to go to the two statues for taking the farmland. Only in a year of 1725, they moved 2400 Chinese of 52 countries to the Shazhou to open up successively, and then adjusted large quantity armed forces and people of Turpan and Luobupo to take in the Shazhou. In the last years of the period of Yongzheng, the farmland of Shazhou had already been expanded to more than 100 thousand mu, and leaded the water of Dang River and felled ten trenches to take irrigation, becoming the desert oasis. In 1760, the government of Qing Dynasty advanced to the Shazhouwei to be as Dunhuang County, which belonged to Anxi Mansion, later cut the mansions to establish the states, hence it belonged to Anxizhilizhou. In 1913, Anxizhilizhou was changed for Anxi County; Dunhuang County keeply belonged to Ganshu Province. In 1936, Dunhuang County belonged to the seventh administration inspector area specialist official bureau of the Ganshu Province.
Peaceful liberation in Dunhuang was on September 28 in 1949, they established the people's government of Dunhuang County on October 7, which belonged to the Jiuquan particularly office. Dunhuang changed the county to establish the city on September 28 in 1987 up to now. Dunhuang was been included in the cities that were firstly opened outward of the whole country by State Department in 1979, in 1986 was named the Chinese famous cultural and history city by the nation, in 1992 the provincial Party committee and the provincial government of Ganshu Province authorized to establish the Dunhuang tour and economy development area.


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