Dunhuang belongs to the region of Jiuquan in Gansu Province. It locates at the crossing of Gansu Province, Qinghai Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, at the eastern edge of the Takelamagan Desert, at the west corner of the Hexizoulang and north peak of the Qilian Mountain. It is far 1160 kilometers from Lanzhou which is capital of the Gansu Province in east, lies in between E 92°13'and E95°30',N 39°40' and N41°40'. It is neighbor with Linan Country on the east, is bounded on the southeast by the Mongolia autonomy county in the north of Gansu and is bounded on the west and north by Hami City in Xinjiang. The biggest throw from south to north is 190 kilometers, the biggest horizontal distance from east to west is 240 kilometers, the total area is 31,200 square kilometers, and the finished area of the city is 8.5 square kilometers. Dunhuang was taken as a country in 111 B.C., it was one of four countries in west of Hanhe River, called Sanwei or Guazhou in the past and it was the vital point that the east, medium each line of Silk Road crossed.
It governs 2 towns and 10 countries such as Shazhou Town, Qili Town, Yangjiaqiao Country, Shuzhou Country, Sanwei Country, Lvjiabao Country, Zhuanqukou Country, Guojiabao Country, Mengjiaqiao Country, Wuton Countries, Nanhu Country etc. The government of city lies in the Shazhou Town. The total population is 156,000 people; the city population of them is 64,600 peoples. The residents regard Han nationality as principle, still having Mongolia nationality, Tibetan, Chaoxian nationality, Man nationality, Kazak nationality, Tu nationality, Yugu nationality Hui nationality etc. The geography of Dunhuang is basin, the surroundings high mountain surround, the south and north inshore geography are high, and the center is low, tilt to one side toward northeast from the southwest. The elevation is between 1091 meters and 1200 meters. There is Qilian Mountain in south, Mazhong Mountain and Tian Mountain in north, there are main Gobi desert in north and west of Gansu, the oasis mainly is in the southeast corner and covers 4.5% of the total area. The Danghe River is inshore unique river, belonging to inland river of Sule river system, rising in the glaciers in Qilian Mountain, is whole long 390 kilometers, the path discharge of year is 296,000,000 sign the square meters, is the life vein of the oasis of Dunhuang. It belongs to the typical arid desert climate, the sunshine time is long, and the difference in temperature in day and night is big. The average temperature of year is 9.3 ?, the extreme tallest temperature is 43.6 ?, the lowest temperature is -28.5 ?, the average rainfall of year is 39.9 millimeters, the evaporation is 2490 millimeters and the frost-free days are 147 days.