Travel guide of Dunhuang
It is also called Qianfo Hole, is one of the famous three greatest stone caves of our country, is also a art treasure-house of Buddhism which has the most great scale in the world and is kept the most intact. It locates in the Dongluan in Mingsha Mountain which is apart about 25 kilometers from the southeast of downtown of Dunhuang, is the important courier station of" the Silk Road" in that years, is also a Chinese and Foreign famous the culture of Buddhism and eastern art holy lands. It is also the constellate ground of the western culture and the Chinese culture. Mogao Hole is the cultural object treasure-house, "big desert and smoke, the side wall fills, a camel bell, pure spring oasis", constituted the natural view and humanities views of the much gorgeous. Mogao Hole is constituted with one line of holes which is about 1600 meters long, it has many five layers totally from the top to the bottom, found in 366 A.D., afterward from Sui Dynasty to Yuan Dynasty, every dynasty all set up. There are 492 holes, the murals which are more than 45000 square meters and 2415 colorful statues. The art essence of the Mogao Hole is in the murals, its composition and its grandiosity changes much, using the thick color gorgeous and complicated, close lines flowing freely, they make the view that person sigh. They discovered the Cangjing Hole in 1900, the emergence of a great deal of history cultural objects and the art exquisite articles shocked the world, it was regrettable that great quantities run off in the overseas later, it became a big calamity of the field of the cultural in our country. The cultural objects of Dunhuang caused the value of the academic circles of world, becoming the specialized course--- Dunhuang Subject, the Mogao Hole was also load in « the cultural inheritance of world record ».
It is famous because of its absolute being, strange, work properly and beauty. The main peak of Sanwei Mountain and Mogao Hole are separated with a big spring, it is rumored that Xiwangmu, Guanyin boddhisattva and Taishanglaojun once visited in this mountain too. Currently, there are still the old buildings like the Wangmu Palace, Guanyin Well and Laojun Hall...etc. Especially more than 1600 years ago, the monk who called Leseng visited in this mountain, when the sun fell, ten thousand gold bodies of Buddha appeared ten million in golden light, he opened to dig the first hole of Mogao Hole then.
>>The west Qianfo Hole
It is the importance part of the Mogao Hole, locates on the precipice wall of Gudang River which is apart 35 kilometers from the southwest of Dunhuang City. The hole was opened to dig at the north side of the precipice wall of the Dang River, arranging toward east from the west, being apart from the bottom of river more than 20 meters, the hole crest is flat Gobi desert pool. There are 17 existing stone caves, started to be set up in the later period of North Dynasty, was added to repair in Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Generation, beginning of Sung Dynasty and Xixia. The murals and statues saved belong to the same system of Mogao Hole, having the equal value; they are a branch of the art system of Dunhuang Caves. The holes are central to have the center mostly, is on all sides to dig the little holes, inside the statues of Buddha. Four walls were drew mostly Xianjieqian Buddha, the statue of Fodiezuoshuo, the statue of Buddha deid, the center and four walls' statues of Buddhas descend draw the gold muscle men. In recent years, the cultural object management section of Dunhuang carries on the overall repair and reinforces to the holes and make the ancient stone caves shining youth, she faces to Mogao Hole from east to west mutually, reflecting to living mutually.
It is the 17th hole of the Mogao Hole of Dunhuang. The north wall draws the skill two of bodkin tree that leaf hands over to connect, the east tree hangs the clean bottle of water, the side signs the nun, the hands receive to hold the round fan; The west tree hangs a bag, the side signs the maid, making the men's wear. The low rectangular bed type, ascend the monk of high renowned Hongqiqiao's statue. A stone tablet stud on the west wall, namely the stone tablet, as if it was not finished but was namely close. When cleaned sands in the 16th hour, they discovered a stone room which is full of book, clerk, embroidery, and portrait by chance, the total number of cultural objects was more than 50,000 pieces. Except the books written by Chinese, there are also various race writing such as Tibetan writing, Sanskrit, Falu writing, Shute writing, Guhezhen writing, Huihu writing etc., they are about share one-sixth originally, there also are several hundred art works like silk scroll painting, embroidery etc. Except a great deal of Buddhist sutra, books of Taoism and the Confucianism classic books, there still are the historical records, poems, novels, civil literatures, ambitions, household registers, books, Liben, documents of title, letters, Zhuangdie etc. they include cultural object books of about 10 dynasties from the 4th to the 11th century A.D., causing many scholars in China and abroad to notice. Later, people who research the cultural heritage and the art, cultural object of Dunhuang increases gradually, and became the subject of Dunhuang.
>>Yadan geography in Bulongji
You can reach Jiayu Pass from the Anxi County to go to west for 265 kilometers; the landscape of Gobi desert is special. The Bulongji County is in a place which is apart 45 kilometers from the east of town, there are a ground of the breeze eclipse of each difference and the dog tooth interleave of shapes everywhere at two sides of the highway, it is the typical Yadan geography spectacular sight. The Yadan geography got name because the breeze eclipse geography of the nearby region of Yadan is most typical. The area of Bulongji take blow the isolation because of the breeze of ten million years, make various geography appearance of the earth's surface flat sandstone layer formation breeze eclipse wall, breeze eclipse mushroom, breeze eclipse pillar, breeze eclipse slot moderate and breezes eclipse marsh land, Chanqiu, fortress...etc., the scenery is grand and makes person all call strange.
It locates in a place which is apart 4 kilometers from the south of Dunhuang City, belongs to Yangjiaqiao Country, at the left side of the highway which is from Dunhuang City to Mingsha Mountain. It is said that there was a Leiyin Temple near the Yueya Spring in the ancient times, later the sandstorm walked sideways, the monastery was covered up by the Mingsha Mountain, in 1989, the followers of Buddhism in Dunhuang City and the groups of Buddhism from the domestic and international endowment, rebuilt up the Leiyin Temple at the old address, it was finished to open the light, and was opened to the visitors in June of 1991. The Leiyin Temple covers 43 mu, the building area is more than 3000 square meters. A west door of the temple opens, the whole temple is constituted by 1 main temple,2 accompany palaces, monk buildings and the benefactors guests rooms, having more than 100 houses totally. 37 statues of Buddha, bodhisattvas, Luohan and the pupils get oblation. The main temple is the Daxiongbao Palace, there is a Hanbai jade statue of Buddha in exact center inside the palace, it is one meter high, fastens Burma the overseas Chinese donates to fix; there are two bodhisattvas at each side of the Buddha statue, also adopt the 18 Luohan, the images are lifelike.
It is also called Shensha Mountain or Shajiao Mountain, it starts the precipice of Mogao Hole in east, connects the reservoir of Dang River in the west, continues 40 kilometers long from east to west, the breadth 20 kilometers from south to north, and it is dozens meters high. The whole mountain body becomes by the red, yellow, green, black, white sand to pile up, a circle with slippery valuables of the many colors sand, fall with the foot, were blew by breeze, reply as before. The form of mountain is beautiful, the peak likes the knife blade, see far continuous to rise and fall, as if the dragon wind around. It likes gold, the silk anis stain is similar soft, and the similar of young girl is quiet. A sand ridge presents waves under the sunshine, turns over, clear and dark mutually, the layers are clear; Visitors climb the mountain and fall, the sand sends out the sound, as if the drum rings, again the thunder voice, therefore the Mingsha Mountain gets name. According to the historical records, in the good weather, even the breeze stops and the sand is quiet, it also will send out the sound of the silk bamboo musical instrument. Although the Mingsha Mountain is not high, you want to ascend the mountain summit of Mingsha Mountain, it is not easy. Continuing fine sand, further, back the half to tread, you have to use the hands and feet to climb upwards. Ascend the mountain summit, that sand peaks like the golden waves in the ocean; the vehemence is pound, dashing and surge. Scrutinize the sand on the slope waves like a ripple for ripple, sometimes they are flowing rapidly, sometimes they return to whirlpool, it is really to have with the result, is full of wit and humor. Taking a distant look, the world become clear suddenly, the mind is immediately spacious, the heart of children comes out!
>>The devil city in Yadan
The Mingsha Mountain and the Yueya Spring of Dunhuang enjoy high prestige and the good reputation because of their natural geography spectacular sight, but the devil city in Yadan which can match in excellence mutuallies is known by a few people. Explained by dictionary, Yadan is the Uighur language, originally means the mound of earth with the abrupt wall, and is a kind of breeze eclipse geography of the dry region. At place which is apart 85 kilometers from the west of Yumen Pass, there is a typical geographies of Yadan tribe, it is about 25 kilometers long, the breadth from south to north is about 1 kilometer to 2 kilometers, the people of Dunhuang call it the devil city, so temporary entitled " the jade door pass the Yadan devil city in Yumen Pass". The geographies of Yadan tribe outruns far and far the scale and appearances defined in the dictionary, its individual and the big whole scale and the oddity of the appearance are in really world-wide rare. About its height, the low place is 4 meters to 5 meters, the high place is more than 20 meters, the length and breadth are from more than ten meters to several 100 meters; it is like a ancient city in Middle Ages. This special" fortress" has the city wall, streets, mansions, squares, churches and statues; its image is vivid, lifelike and make people of this world stare.
You can find out miniatures of many famous buildings in the world, the temple of heaven in Beijing, Budala Palace in Tibet, the pyramid and Sphinx in Egypt, the yurts on the steppe, Arabian type the mosque of Arabian type, completed with everything, the statues contain the male lion in desert, the camel brigade of Silk Road, a group of turtles go out the sea, mainstay, they can't win to say. Place yourself there, as if enter the world building art museum, let persons' eyes not connect and surprised. These masterpiece of the great universes are rated as the extremely skillful, marvelous endless, let person admire complete prostration, make visitors linger on and forget to return, even cause the infinite to think.
>>White Horse Tower
The existing White House Tower is impressive-looking, the tower body has 9 layers, it is 12 meters high, the diameter is 7 meters, and it was made of the soil, having the pillar, drawing outside with the grass mire, lime. The basic level presents the octagon; Wrapped with the bricks, the each face is 3 meters of breadth, the second to the fourth layer present to fold the heavy form of Cape; There are outstanding milk nails under the fifth layers, rounding one circle, there are lotus petal on the circle; the sixth layer is the tower body, the seventh layer is a form of mutually; the eighth layer is hexagonal dish, the each cape hangs a breeze; the ninth layer is the bead type tower point, the whole tower presents the style of Lama tower.
>>Image of markets and buildings in mirage
It is anther spectacular sight of Dunhuang, in the sunny and hot summer; you often can see the mysterious views in the Gobi desert sea of Dunhuang. Particularly at the two sides of highways which is from Dunhuang to Yang Pass and Yumen Pass, you can see" sea water", the high and big" mountain and stream", the tidy" building" and "city". These beautiful sceneries are faintly discernable and very sublime.
>>The Great Wall and Fengshui in Han Dynasty
The Great Wall and Fengshui in Han Dynasty
The grand and gallant Great Wall is a great creation of the Chinese labor people in ancient times. In West Han Dynasty, the kings in Central Plain was toward for the sake of outward imperial the Huns' harassment of anti-, strengthened the construction of the border land, stabilized the common people life to inside, made the centralization stronger, strengthened the trade and friendly come-and-go with Central Asia and all countries of West Asia, from Lingju which is Yongtang now, by Hexizoulangzhangye, Ejinaqi, Jinta, Jiayu Pass, Yumen, Anxi etc., went to Mamitu of West Lake of Dunhuang, they set up the Great Wall. And they made the Ting and Zhang which was the bigger fortress and the war signal set to build in Yanze which is Luobupo now, Luolan and Guguo. It would be the Great Wall of Han Dynasty. Except the Great Wall of Han which is from Jiandunzi to Mamitu and is in the north side of Dunhuang, there are still the laterals of the Great Wall which are from Yumen Pass to Yang Pass, from Yang Pass to Danghekou and From Mamitu to Wanyaodun. Along with the breakage of the passage moderate breezes rain quicksand of more than 2,000 years, parts of Great Walls were the flat ground; the most of Great Wall keeps down. The Great Wall in the area of Danggushui which is in the west of Yumen Pass keep better, the foundation is 3 meters of breadth, they are 3 meters high, one meter of breadth, they are the Great Wall of Han Dynasty which is the most complete segment of in our country.
Because of the natural condition with abundant resources in Dunhuang, the number of existing" Jixin" is most and the preservation of existing" Jixin" is best in our country. There is a Fengshui surroundings deposit of accumulate the salary to amount to 15 piles, arrange very tidy, for many years, condensing together, is hard such as fossil.
In the ruins of the Great Wall and Fengshui of Han Dynasty which is more than 2,000 years ago, there are many very precious history cultural objects. Such as the paper of West Han in Yumenqianqiushui, passing research, it was early more than 170 years than Cai Lun made papers in East Han. The famous Dunhuang Chien" is to sprout from the ruins of Fengshui that follows the line of the Great Wall. It provided the lately important data for researching the politics, military, economy, cultural etc. in the river west region of Han Dynasty and the whole country.
In setting sun, stand on the Fengshui by the side of the Great Wall of Han Dynasty, the pole eyes look far, the full eyes are the prospects of "the big desert smoke keep straight, long the river setting sun circle", making the person produce a thinking of the past innermost thoughts.
It locates apart 25 kilometers from the southeast of Dunhuang City. Sanwei is the earliest place name of Dunhuang in the historical records, « Shangshu?Shundian» carry:"Flee three seedlings in three Wei". As early as the later half period of second centry A.D., Ho Jin who was a famous scholar in East Han wrote books here. In 352, the followers of Buddhism began to establish the holes here. In 366, Lefu who was an famous monk came here, saw Sanwei Mountain likeness thousands of Buddha, and started to dig the Mogao Hole. Sanwei Mountain is one important divine spot of Dunhuangs from time immemorial toward do obeisance. The buildings of temples and palaces are apart about 6 kilometers From east to east, there are the memorial arch of monastery gate, Wangmu Palace, Guanyin Well, Amitabha Palace, Guanyin Palace, Longwang Temple, Peaceful Temple, Skrjmui big Buddha, Laojun Temple etc. there are still Letang and various stone tablets and statues on top of far hill. Enter the saint place, there is the gate which is four pillars and seven floors memorial arch type and sits east and faces west firstly, ascend to engrave Sanweishengjing. The big palace of Wangmu Palace locates between two mountains, imitating Tang for two layers summit of hills Sung type palace building, it is rumored that it was once the place where Xiwangmu lived. Go ahead and pass the memorial arch of Guanyin Well, you can see one ancient Amitabha palace and the Guanyin Palace on the top of north hill, the east side lately- fix view sound temple heavy summit of hill style of Song building and the ancient Guanyin Well stations connected for the integral whole. Go ahead to east from the Guanyin Temple, there is one Longwang Temple in the hillocks, fiesta inside the temple thunder absolute being and a dragon king that has the folks faith, the whole world dragon kings, five dragon kings, went the peaceful temple before from the dragon, the department hanged the mountain to copy the painting hall, guarding a gate the absolute being, god of wealth for the fiesta, cooking stove absolute being, various absolute being in the god of the city land. Go ahead again, there is a big statue of Buddha Gautama which is 66 meters high on the hilltop, it sits the east and faces west, present a glimmer of distribute with other each palace, see at the foot of the big Buddha, Sanweishengjing accepted the eye bottom to the utmost, the Laojun Hall is an ancient temple in the most east, the oblation is Taishanglaojun, in order to protect in one place. The scale of Sanweishengjing is very big, one parties buddha country holy land, Taoist paradise prospects. Lately- fix each palace of Buddha hold to open the light rites on April 8th in 2000 of Chinese calendar, and open to the visitors.
>>Ancient city in Dunhuang
It is apart 10 kilometers from downtown in west in Dunhuang. It was built for taking the large history feature film which called Dunhuang. The constitution based the ancient cities in our country like Shazhou, Ganzhou, Bianliang to set; the main streets take the famous "Qingmingshanghe Diagram" of Sung Dynasty. Ganzhou City is in the south side of city, it is the capital of Huihu in the period of Xixia, there are the impressive-looking grand view city tower and the building of fielding officials in the west side, there are still in the style of antique type of buildings and pavilions, stores, wine shops, various beams, formatses of buildings all have an unique style, making the person feel to return to visit in the dream world. The government office and mansion of Cao Yabhui in Xixia make person loiter. The ancient city reflected the prosperous prospects of Dunhuang in ancient times really, there are several clothing and props to be provided to the Chinese and Foreign movie factories and television stations in addition to setting, and it also becomes an important beauty spot of the tour in Dunhuang again.
>>The showbiz city fashioned style of Song Dynasty in Dunhuang
Dunhuang copies from Song Dynasty stlye the showbiz city, It is also called the ancient city in Dunhuang, is apart from 20 kilometers of city southwest of Dunhuang, covers 12,100 square meters of area. City tower and main streets followed the modes of the ancient city in Shazhou and the Nanchan Temple in Wutai Mountain in Shanxi to design and set up. The archaize buildings like Shazhou Street, Kaifeng Street, Ganzhou Street, Jiedu Mansion of Dunhuang, Buddhist Temple, warehouses, stores, wine shops, restaurants, residences...etc. in the city of Dunhuang, the joss-stick and color are ancient, they have the only style, are a humanities view in Dunhuang and the showbiz base in Northwest again. In recent years, many people has already taken 20 showbiz plays in ancient city in Dunhuang.